The Assam State Museum was established on 21st April in 1940. The Kamrupa Anusandhana Samiti which was the pioneer organization in the field of historical and antiquarian studies of Assam had established the Assam State Museum. The museum was formally inaugurated by the then Governor of Assam Sir Robert Neil Reid.
The untiring efforts of Rai Bahadur Kanaklal Barua, Raibahadur Ananda Chandra Agarwalla, Kaliram Medhi were greatly responsible for establishment of the Museum.
The first building of the museum was constructed with the money received from public donation and Government grant. Raibahadur Naupat Rai Kedia has donated a handsome amount for the construction of the building. In 1953 the institution was taken over by the State Government.
Assam is situated in the North-East of India and is the largest northeastern state in terms of population while second in terms of area. Assam covers an area of 78,438 km2 (30,285 sq miles). The state is bordered by Bhutan and the state of Arunachal Pradesh to the north; Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur to the east; Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram, and Bangladesh to the south; and West Bengal to the west. A significant geographical aspect of Assam is that it contains three of six physiographic divisions of India – The Northern Himalayas (Eastern Hills), The Northern Plains (Brahmaputra plain), and Deccan Plateau (Karbi Anglong).