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                   Labour Department was a part of the former Judicial Department of the Government of Assam till 1951,when it was constituted into an independent Department.The administration of the Directorate of National Employment Service which was under the control of the Government of India was transferred to the State Government and tagged with the Department with effect from 1st November,1956.The "Craftsmen Training Scheme" which was formerly under Education(CTM) Department was transferred to the Labour Department ,on 1st April 1964 and now constitutes a wing of the Directorate of Employment and Craftsmen Training under the Labour Department.Soon after the constitution of an independent Labour Department the Inspectorate of Factories and the Inspectorate of Boilers and administrative control of Labour Courts and Industrial Tribunals constituted under the provisions of Industrial Disputes Act,1947,were also brought under the control of the Labour Department.The Labour Department was renamed as Labour and Employment Department with effect from 10-07-1981 and a Research Cell was created in 1977 as part and parcel of the Department at Secretariat level.             

              The Government of Assam has constituted Employment Generation Mission and the Mission has already started its functioning and has taken up schemes for providing employment to 7,630 number of unemployed youths.It is being emphasized that the local resources of the State should be utilized in the process of generating employment opportunities.National Self Employment Scheme for rehabilitation of manual scavenger has also been taken up in collaboration with W.P.T. and B.C.Department.

The Labour and Employment Department is solely responsible for administration of all labour enactments(both central and state) along with the State Rules on a number of subjects related to the welfare of labourers. Labour and Employment Department is also responsible for discharging the judicial and quasi-judicial functions pertaining to industries disputes through its conciliatory mechanism,Industrial Tribunals and Labour Courts created under Section 7-A Section-7 of the Industrial Disputes Act,1947.Furthermore,the Labour and Employment Department is implementing the various projects under CSS,NEC and under State Plan schemes for upgrading and modernization of ITIs aiming to upgrade technical skills of the trainees with an objective for better placement/self-employment of the pass out trainees.The Labour and Employment being the regulatory welfare Department id implementing the National Child Labour Project(NLCP) in three districts viz. Guwahati,Lakhimpur and Nagaon,as per policy adopted by the Government of India to curb the child labour problems in the state. Labour and Employment Department is also functioning as referral Department in case of projects on child and women welfare by the different NGOs for sanctioning fund as per guidelines of the Ministry of Labour, Government of India. The Labour and Employment is also responsible for implementation of the Krishi Shramik/Samajik Suraksha Yojana are formulated by the Ministry of Labour, Government of India in Nagaon District.The Labour and Employment Department is implementing the Supreme Court's Judgement on sexual harassment to the working women at workplace.Different seminars and trainings on labour related subjects are also organized by this Department.