The Assam State Museum was established on 21st April in 1940. The Kamrupa Anusandhana Samiti which was the pioneer organization in the field of historical and antiquarian studies of Assam had established the Assam State Museum. The museum was formally inaugurated by the then Governor of Assam Sir Robert Neil Reid.
The untiring efforts of Rai Bahadur Kanaklal Barua, Raibahadur Ananda Chandra Agarwalla, Kaliram Medhi were greatly responsible for establishment of the Museum.
The first building of the museum was constructed with the money received from public donation and Government grant. Raibahadur Naupat Rai Kedia has donated a handsome amount for the construction of the building. In 1953 the institution was taken over by the State Government.