The flood control activities in Assam started mainly after the announcement of National Water Policy in 1954. Subsequently, "Outlined plan for flood control in Assam" along with various comprehensive plans were prepared and the priority areas, which need immediate and urgent attention were identified.
The Department performed works as a wing of the state Public Works Deptt. (PWD) till 1970 when the Department along with Irrigation Department bifurcated from the parent P.W.D. Department. Again in the year 1974 the Irrigation Department was separated out from the Flood Control Department. Subsequently, the Flood Control Deptt. was renamed as Water Resources Deptt. in the year 2002.
Till date, the Water Resources Department has taken up works primarily for the general development of the rural sector and for the protection of major townships in both the Brahmaputra and Barak valley of Assam. Schemes have also been taken up to relieve the drainage congestion in the cities and other important areas.